## TEM-Wave Theories of Electricity

There are two mutually-exclusive theories of electricity. One is the popular theory of electric current running inside of wires (Theory Normal), the other is the theory of TEM waves moving at the speed of light between and around the wires (Theory Heaviside, Catt, TEM Wave). The popular theory had crowded out TEM-Wave theory over the course of the the 20th Century, almost to extinction. Due to the needs of digital electronics, it is enjoying a resurgence in the 21st Century.

"TEM" stands for Transverse ElectroMagnetic, a term that almost entirely went out of use by the turn of the 21st C. A photon, as originally conceived, is a quantized TEM wave. It was then described as a "packet of energy", which obscures the TEM-wave definition. A TEM wave has two mutually orthoganal fields, electric and magnetic, both transverse to the direction of travel. The idea comes directly from the study of how electricity propagates.

The 19th Century concept of a rail-to-rail TEM wave guided by the two conductors, as a train is guided by the two rails of a railroad track, is closer to the truth than is the electric-current picture. Resistance heats up the wires, outside to inside, like the rolling-resistance to the train's movement heats up the train-track rails. The term "rail-to-rail", used in electronics, is one of the linguistic vestiges of TEM-wave theory.

**ANIMATIONS OF TEM-WAVES BETWEEN TWO WIRES**

These animations help to understand and visualize how electricity actually works in an electric circuit. It is not a current in the wires.

Philosophy, Assertions, Hypotheses and Predictions of Theories N and C

The Fine-structure Constant and Some Relationships Between the Electromagnetic Wave Constants.

I discovered a more compact equation for the famous Fine Structure Constant.

*Reforming Electromagnetic Units, Equations, and
Concepts: An Extension of Ivor Catt's Theory*

The Catt Question. The Two Pulses problem. The Wakefield Experiment. How TEM waves in a waveguide create the illusion of TE, TM
modes. Units. I derived some elegant equations for the voltage of the photon. TEM-wave ring electron.

## Many Problems With Electric Current

*We begin with the most important electromagnetics paper of the 20 ^{th} Century,
all two pages of it. This suffices to show that the theory of electric current cannot work.*

"'Electricity' is the last of the medaeval fluids. Its downfall came when mass was attributed to it." -Ivor Catt

**The Catt Question**

The Catt Question is in regard to a two-wire
transmission line in conventional electromagnetic theory (Theory N). See figures 1, 2, and 3.
In order for the transverse electric field to exist, there has to be an excess of negative electric charge transported toward the battery on the
upper wire, and an excess of negative charge moving toward the load on the lower wire. Otherwise, there would not be any possible voltage
difference between the two wires.

**
Where does the negative charge come from on the lower wire?**

Hundreds of attempts, and no one has been able to answer this question. No one can.

* The Forbidden Equation: i = qc*
(PDF)

The unassailable falsification of electric current, using elementary algebra.

*Books by Ivor Catt and his Colleagues*

*Books by Ivor Catt and his Colleagues*

** Electromagnetic Theory**,

**,**

*Vol. 1*"There is far less knowledge and understanding of electromagnetic theory today, and this includes those in the highest places, than an outsider could possibly suppose."

*Electromagnetic Theory, Vol 1*as a searchable PDF

*Electromagnetic Theory**, *** Vol. 2**,
.

"This volume contains the first disclosure of the most important advance in electromagnetic theory for a hundred years." -Catt

*Electromagnetic Theory, Vol 2*as a searchable PDF

** Digital Electronic Design**,

**, Uploaded June, 2006**

*Vol. 1**Digital Electronic Design, Vol. 1*as a searchable PDF,

** Digital Electronic Design**,

**, Uploaded on June 9, 2006**

*Vol. 2*"Volume 2 contains more practical advice on day to day digital design, along with some disclosures of fundamental advances in the art."

*Digital Electronic Design, Vol. 2*as a searchable PDF,

** Oliver Heaviside, the Man**, by G.F.CSearle,
Uploaded on June 9,2006

"The late G.F.C. Searle, F.R.S., who was the friend of Oliver Heaviside for 33 years, wrote this, the only lengthy Heaviside biography, in 1950." Edited by Ivor Catt

*Oliver Heaviside the Man*as a searchable PDF

All searchable PDFs are provided by Anthony Wakefield, who also conducted The Wakefield Experiments.